All About Charging

 EVs for beginners

Considering buying an EV? Here’s a quick introduction for beginners!

1. How do I charge the car?

Almost all charging of EVs is done at home in the garage. At home, you can plug the acr into a regular power outlet. It is common to leave you car charging overnight, so you have a fully charged car in the morning. In general, charging your car at home is sufficient to cover most of the car’s charing needs.

2. What is fast charging?

A quick charger is a a charging station where you can charge your car’s battery caster than at home. Fast charging works as a supplement to home charging, and is often used when driving long trips or when you need to charge the battery faster than you can do at home. Fast, rapid, and quick charging are all terms used for this type of charging.

3. How much does an EV cost in electricity?

The power costs associated with driving an EV are very low compared to the costs of running a petrol or diesel powered car, however the exact costs depend on the price of electricity and petrol where you are, as well as additional incentives that may exist (tax exemptions, parking benefits, etc).

4. Does an electrician have to set up a new outlet at home?

An electric car can charge at a standard power outlet at 10 amps. At a higher ampere, it is a good idea to install a home charging station to ensure that the electrical system is not overloaded. This installation should be handled by professionals.

5. Do I have to worry about running out of power?

Range anxiety is a term many have heard, and many are worried about running out of power when they first consider getting an EV. As you get to know your car, this worry disappears and you learn how much power you need for your journeys. As charging infrastructure continues to develop at an astonishing rate, range anxiety will likely become a thing of the past.

6. Do I need a gasoline car in addition to an EV?

Studies made by American researchers show that the range of most EVs already cover the needs of most drivers. However, many people still think that they should keep a diesel or petrol powered car as a precaution. Ultimately, many discover that the gasoline car is barely used after buying an EV, and it’s probably more practical and cost-effective to rent or borrow a petrol engine car the few times per year that they are actually needed.

7. What are other benefits of electric vehicles?

EVs contribute to climate change to a far lesser extent than petrol or diesel cars, and many governments have introduced (or are introducing) additional incentives to purchase electric vehicles. Here are just a few examples of the incentives in Norway:

  • EVs are exempt from the one-time purchase tax and VAT.
  • Free parking at most communacl parking spaces
  • Exemption from road tolls
  • Access to the bus lane
  • Reduced annual tax
  • Free charging in many public charging stations
  • 50% discount on company vehicle taxation

This is a translation from stromvippa.no

What controls charging speed?

Many EV drivers wonder what controls how fast their EVs will charge with rapid chargers in different conditions. Why does the car slow down when it’s old, and what happens when you charge over 70 – 80%? Let’s find out.

The EV controls how much power it gets with DC rapid charging. So the combination of the vehicle, its electronics, and its battery determine how quickly the EV will charge. In particular, there are 2 things that will have an affect on charging:

  1. How full is the battery (voltage)
  2. How cold or hot is the battery (temperature)

An EV will slow down charging when it reaches 70 – 80%.

To understand how this happens with rapid charging, you have to understand how the battery is built. The battery cells in your EV consist of a positive and negative electrode, and an electrolyte that allows the lithium ions to move between the electrodes in one direction or another, depending on whether or not the car is being charged. When charging the battery, positive lithium ions are transferred to the negative electrode until it is full.

Charging power decreases when you have reached a certain voltage level in the battery cells. This is typically around 70-80%.

When it starts to get full, there is a narrower amount of space for the lithium ions in the negative electrode. The electrode needs more time to free up space for the lithium ions that are flowing into it. Therefore, charging power decreases when you have reached a certain voltage level in the battery cells. This is typically around 70-80%.

The effect of cold

When it’s cold, lithium ions move slower in the electrolyte. Electrochemical processes are sensitive to temperature. Using the same charging power, the cell voltage will be higher than at more ideal temperatures. This can destroy the cells, and consequently charging power may be reduced. The car communicates with the charger and automatically ensures that the current decreases. One supplier (ABB), has estimated that a “normal size” battery pack on an EV can expect 30 minutes charging time from 0 – 80% at 10°C. At O°C, charging time will increase to 45 minutes, and at -10°C, charging time may reach 90 minutes. At -20°C, it will take about 90 minutes with battery heating; without battery heating it will take about 3 hours.

How to get the best charging in winter

The highest power is obtained when the car is hot and has little power the battery.

  • Do not use a rapid charger if your car has been parked without charging overnight for a long time. In this case, charging will be more efficient after a drive or at a standard charger (AC).
  • Do not charge more than 70% at a rapid charger if you can reach the next charger within the range it provides. The more power you require in your battery, the slower the charge goes.

This article is a translation of an article from fortum.no, originally written on ladestasjoner.no.